The Handicap Principle. Why we behave extravagantly

In the ethological science, there are many original theories which surprisingly reveal some seemingly strange traits and behaviors. One of these theories, an extremely interesting one, called The Handicap Principle, has been suggested by the Israeli ethologist Amotz Zahavi. According to him, certain phenotypic animal traits or behaviors seem to

The role of aggression in the lives of individuals, species and nations

Why do we see aggressive behavior in all animal species, including in humans? What is its usefulness? From an ethological point of view, aggression is a behavior which allows for a hierarchical status to be established within a group, facilitates the access to resources, allows one to defend against the

If the Earth would have plunged into darkness for 6 days…

“NASA announces that, in December, the Earth is going to almost completely fade into darkness for 6 days, due to a solar storm.” This rumor has recently circulated in the media and on social networks. Although, obviously, it was a little joke, a denial from the NASA’s official was necessary,

Sex and power. The reproductive instinct of conquerors

The French writer Alexadre Dumas Sr., who had traveled to Caucasus in the years of 1858 and 1859, was telling in his traveling diary that the best gift that the Georgian and Lezghian youth could give to their fiancées were the chopped hands of the individuals from the neighboring tribe.

Male aggression as a reproductive strategy

Origins of aggression can be better understood if viewed through the lens of sexual benefits that it provides. Combative behavior finds its justification in the need for males to protect their territory and resources, and to conquer the female and to reproduce – these are the adaptive and evolutionary significances